symphony orchestra Wednesday, October 4, 2023 • 7:30 pm • UNCG Auditorium

Danzón no. 2

Arturo Márquez (b. 1950)

Composed: 1994


Arturo Márquez

Arturo Márquez was born in 1950 in Álamos, Sonora, Mexico. A descendent of mariachi and Mexican folk music traditions, Márquez’s musical upbringing and compositional style are steeped in those musical practices. He has studied at the Mexican Music Conservatory and the California Institute of the Arts. Márquez’s series of Danzones are inspired by the native music of the Veracruz region.

Danzón No. 2 is the second in a series of 9 Danzones, written for various ensembles. This danzón grew in worldwide popularity with Gustavo Dudamel programming it for the Simón Bolívar Youth Orchestra of Venezuela in 2007. While the style of the danzón originates in Cuba, it holds a place of importance in the folklore of the Mexican state of Veracruz. The work is propelled forward by constant rhythmic syncopations juxtaposed with cantabile lyrical melodies passed around throughout the orchestra.

Concerto for clarinet and orchestra, op. 57

Carl Nielsen (1865–1931)

Composed: 1928


Carl Nielsen

Carl August Nielsen was born in 1865 in Sortelung, Denmark. His own anecdotal accounts of his life were recorded only in his autobiography, published in 1927 at the insistence of his daughter, Irmelin. Entitled My Childhood on Funen, it recounts his upbringing on Denmark’s third largest island amongst castles, stone age ruins, and Viking relics. Nielsen brings this childhood steeped in ancient reminders to bear in his music, and has won him wide recognition as Denmark’s most prominent composer. First studying violin and piano at the age of 6, Neilsen became a bugler and alto trombonist in the 16th Battalion Army Band in Odense. He would go on to study at the Royal Academy in Copenhagen, and to serve as the assistant conductor of the Royal Danish Orchestra, with whom he also performed as a second violinist.

Nielsen’s Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra, op. 57, was composed in 1928. After writing his Wind Quintet for the Copenhagen Wind Quintet after becoming enamored of the group’s sound and musical ability, Nielsen promised each of the quintet’s members a concerto. The clarinetist of the group, Aage Oxenvad, would be the second and final member of the Quintet to have Neilsen dedicate a concerto to them. Nielsen and Oxenvad shared a country upbringing that hearkened back to earlier times, and the Danish Nielsen Society quotes one of Oxenvad’s colleagues as saying “…he has unleashed the soul of the clarinet, not only its wild animal nature, but also its special kind of – harsh – lyricism… Oxenvad’s tone is in league with trolls and giants, and he has Sind, harsh and square Urkraft with blue-eyed Danish gentleness in between. Carl Nielsen must also have heard his clarinet sound when he wrote his Concerto."

Symphony No. 5 in E minor, Op. 64

P.I. Tchaikovsky (1840–1893)

Composed: 1888


Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born in 1840 in the city of Votkinsk in modern Ukraine. He began showing his musical inclination at a young age but trained for the civil service as a result of the lack of formal musical training programs available in Russia at the time. As a result, Tchaikovsky’s musical training reflected the practices of Western European traditions. Though he idolized composers from that tradition, Mozart and Beethoven most of all, he was also indelibly influenced by the Slavic folk music of his youth and the school of Russian nationalist composers that were his predecessors and contemporaries.

One of the earlier students of the Russian Musical Society’s classes, prior to its becoming the Saint Petersburg Conservatory in 1862, Tchaikovsky found himself caught between the Russian “Mighty Handful’s” focus on the fostering of amateur talent and the Conservatory’s focus on importing structured musical training from abroad. As a result, his music was consistently viewed through the lens of which of the two causes it was paying service to, and Tchaikovsky strove to reconcile the two schools of thought within his works while maintaining his independence from either one. Among Tchaikovsky’s compositions are 3 ballets, 11 operas, 6 symphonies, and many choral, chamber, concert, piano, and program works.

Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 5 in E minor, op. 64 was composed in the summer of 1888, following a lengthy European tour. In his personal correspondence with his family, Tchaikovsky confides many of his own thoughts and feelings during that summer. Perhaps most relatable, he writes that in spite of his determination to compose this symphony he is plagued by a gnawing fear that he has fulfilled his potential as a composer and is past his prime. As his last symphony was premièred a full decade prior to this time, a fear that he might have exhausted his creative abilities may not have lacked rationale. Tchaikovsky writes that he finds it difficult to begin work, and begins – and rejects – material repeatedly before settling on his final symphonic sketch and, ultimately, its orchestration. His own perception of the symphony’s success initially fails to mirror its popularity in both Russia and greater Europe. His personal correspondence reveals a continued cloud of self-doubt and dissatisfaction as orchestras continue to enthusiastically embrace this work, until Tchaikovsky himself comes to regard it as a success.

Although the composer himself often cautioned against seeking too much literal meaning in his works, instead advocating that they be taken for exactly what they were, Tchaikovsky drafted a rough outline for the first movement before beginning: Introduction. Complete resignation before Fate, or, which is the same, before the inscrutable predestination of Providence. Allegro (I) Murmurs, doubts, plaints, reproaches against xxx. (II) Shall I throw myself in the embraces of faith?

This Providence theme provides the Andante introduction of the Symphony’s first movement, with dual clarinets playing the legato line in unison while underscored by soft string pulses outlining the plagal motion of resignation. The theme has a sense of constancy, as though whether it were audibly sounding or not, some sense of it remains present. After this introduction, the plagal motion continues in the strings, over which the clarinet and bassoon begin the rollicking 6/8 tune that is the primary theme of the movement. If this theme is the “murmurs” alluded to in Tchaikovsky’s outline, then the answer to it and the interjecting fortissimo lines might be heard as the “doubts, plaints, reproaches.” The contrasting lyrical rising string figure and its woodwind reply might then fulfill the “embrace of faith” from the outline, sending the first movement into its second theme. Although Tchaikovsky offers no other clear ideas about the remainder of the symphony, the Providence theme returns time and again as if to reinforce its constancy.

The second movement begins with a lyrical, romantic horn solo that swells to intertwine longingly with first a solo clarinet, and then a more playful oboe. Sweeping strings pick up this theme, with constant ebb and flow in tempo until a threatening and forceful reiteration of Providence – this time driven by unified winds – marches through to reassert itself with dominating character. The main theme resumes, growing broader and grander to a sweeping, climactic tenor with perhaps more passion and yearning than before. Again, a ringing interjection of Providence inserts itself with double reeds, trumpet, and low brass hammering out its insistence and inescapability, until the entire orchestra is consumed by the grand boiling-over of Fate. The lyrical and sweeping strings return, ebbing in resigned acquiescence to the strength of Providence’s demands and fading out to the very edge of audibility.

The third movement provides a sprightly waltz that is reminiscent of Tchaikovsky’s ballet scores. Although there are brief bursts of lighter, happier moments, they are fleeting; the entire movement carries along with an air of the same lush grandiosity that has pervaded the previous movements. This time, however, Providence fails to impose itself over the movement’s ideas. Instead, the now-familiar theme can be heard just in the closing bars of the waltz, as if a persistent reminder of its inescapability.

The symphony’s finale, marked Andante maestoso – Allegro vivace – Moderato assai – Presto, lifts the main theme from minor to major, and carries it with ever increasing haste towards its grand finish. The familiar tones of Providence are carried out in forceful chords and a flowing woodwind theme, transforming the character of the theme from the foreboding inescapability of its previous iterations into something triumphant and exuberant. The Providence theme is developed with growing confidence, before a sweeping largamente statement envelops the movement and provides the starting point for another surge in energy and emotion, building strongly to a racing Presto that ends in a slower, majestic trumpet fanfare of the movement’s opening subject. The finale has thus taken the forbearing inescapability of the Providence theme and embraced it fully, giving in to its demands and elevating it to a point of celebration rather than an ominous warning, and perhaps revealing Tchaikovsky’s hopes for his outcome should he throw himself in the embraces of faith.


Dr. Jungho Kim has established an outstanding reputation over the past two decades for his superb musicality and leadership on the podium. He has conducted numerous orchestras around the world including the National Arts Centre Orchestra in Canada, Savaria Symphony Orchestra and Dohnanyi Orchestra Budafok in Hungary, Northwest Iowa Symphony Orchestra, Omaha Symphony Orchestra, Rochester Philharmonic, and Buffalo Philharmonic. After successfully leading the Augustana University Orchestra, Kim has served as the Director of Orchestra at the Hugh A. Glauser School of Music at Kent State University. He was recently named Music Director and Conductor of the Cleveland Women’s Orchestra as well as the Tuscarawas Philharmonic.

Following his first professional three-year position as a section violinist at Gyeonggi Philharmonic Orchestra in Korea, Kim went on to earn two master’s degrees in violin performance and orchestral conducting from the University of Cincinnati’s College-Conservatory of Music. It was the renowned conductor Maestra Xian Zhang—Music Director of the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra and La Verdi Orchestra Sinfonica in Milan, Italy—who offered Kim the position as Associate Conductor of the Sioux City Symphony Orchestra.

Kim completed the Doctor of Musical Arts degree at the Eastman School of Music under the guidance of Maestro Neil Varon. He served as the assistant conductor of the Rochester Philharmonic and was awarded the Walter Hagen Conducting Prize during his doctoral studies. Along with the opportunities he has had to study with world famous artists, such as Maestro Kurt Masur and Pinchas Zukerman, his most meaningful successes in life have been meeting his wife, violinist Dr. Eunho Kim, and raising their two boys, Teo and Juno, as well as their dog, Kobi.

Daniel GarcIa

Honduran clarinetist and composer Daniel Garcia began his musical study at the age of 11 at the National Music School of Honduras. He has performed with orchestras in Latin America and the United States, and in 2022 joined North Carolina’s Western Piedmont Symphony as 2nd clarinet. Daniel, who is an endorsed artist for Steuer Reeds, won the 2015 MasterWorks Festival Concerto Competition and made his Carnegie Hall debut in 2021 as First Prize winner of the Golden Classical Music awards. He has won other top prizes in the Charleston International Music Competition, the BTHVN Wien Competition, the Valencia Awards Music Competition, the London Classical Music Competition, the International Mozart Competition Vienna, Swiss International Music Competition, the UNCG Student Artist Competition and the Raleigh Symphony “Rising Star” Competition.

Daniel’s compositional voice takes a tonal approach, with melody as the main pillar and it is influenced by modernism and some of the most known composers of the twentieth century. His works have been performed by Susan Hoskins, Jorge Diez and Ryan Johnson, among others. Daniel is currently a Graduate Teaching Assistant and Master of Music Candidate at UNC Greensboro, where he studies clarinet with Anthony Taylor, Luke Ellard, and Andy Hudson and composition with Alejandro Rutty and Mark Engebretson. He previously earned his Bachelor of Music in Clarinet Performance from the Schwob School of Music in 2022, where he was a Woodruff Scholar and studied clarinet with Lisa Oberlander and composition with James Ogburn