The Passion of the Bow Workshop Victoria Baroque, Oct 27, 2023

The Baroque Violin Bow

When writing about the baroque violin bow we have to consider its history, development and usage. The bow is generally regarded as being of crucial importance from our earliest sources (Rognoni, 1620; The Viole da brazzo, especially the violin, is an instrument in itself crude and harsh, if it is not tempered and softened by gentle/delicate [soave] bowing” ) to our latest (Cambini, 1795; “The bow is the soul, the thought, the spirit of the violin" ), the bow is awarded special significance.


  1. How was the bow made? (length, shape, balance, material, construction etc)
  2. How was the bow held?
  3. How was the bow is used (bowing technique, order of strokes) ?

A Timeline history of the Violin Bow from c. 1600-1800

with quotes by by Richard Gwilt

The development of the Baroque Bow:

What is the main difference between the modern (Tourte) bow, and the baroque bow?. The shape of it. A convex curve and light curved tip with the hair ever closer to the stick being the defining features of the baroque bow. However, the significance lies in the details. During our period the bow was in constant development, and the differences, with associated differences in playing technique, have an enormous impact on sound and articulation.

This diagram below, from Stradivarius by F.J. Fétis, Paris 1856, shows somewhat schematically the now development.

The bow went from short to longer, the outward curve changed over time to the inward camber of the Tourte bow. The number of hairs increased, and the method of fixing the hair became ever more sophisticated and flexible.

Information from written sources about the form, structure or material of the bow.

Roger North mentions Nicolai Matters more than once; “He was a very tall and large bodyed man, used a very long bow, rested his instrument agains his short ribbs”. / “He was a very robust and tall man, and having long armes, held his instrument almost against his girdle, and his bow was long as for a base viola, and he touched his devision with the very point;” / “Its length (betwixt the two places where the Hairs are fastened at each end) about seven and twenty inches.” This is 68.6 hair length, which must give you a bow around 76cm at the shortest. That’s longer than a modern bow, which seems inconceivable.

John Lenton, In the tittle tutor, The Gentleman’s Diversion from 1693: “let your Bow be as long as your Instrument, will mounted and stiff Hair’d, it will otherwise totter upon the String in drawing a long stroke.” This is very useful-not only specify the length but also that he wants it well-tensioned.

John Talbot Manuscript (1685-1701), : “the usual length of the Consort Bow” (that is 61cm), whereas “The length of the Bow for Solo’s or Sonata’s” (that is between 66 to 68.58cm). “Bow of fine Speckled-wood has two mortises to wch [which] the hair fastened and one at the head the other towns [towards] the bottom or Bach part of Nutt. Hair of the best & finest white hair if possible from Stoned horse: hair should be full. Bow of violin not under 24’ from there to 27 1/2 at most. 27, 26-25 1/2 Solo-Bow.” So that’s not under 61 cm, up to 70 cm at most, 68.6 to 64.77 for solo bow.

Pierre Trichet in his Traité des instruments de musique (c.2631) suggests that bows of “brazilwodd, ebony ... and other solid wood, are the best ...

Benjamin Tate (young English aristocrat) writes in 1741: "[Locatelli] plays with a Short Bow, and the Reason He gives for Doing so, is, that He Believes, no Fidler can Play any thing with a Long Bow, that he can't play with a Short one."

Bow Technique

Bow Hold:

There are two ways of holding the bow, talking about ‘clip-in’ frog bows -the adjustable screw-frog didn't really appear till the middle of the 18th century.

1664 in John Playford's “A Brief Introduction to the Skill of Musick, London 1664." "the Bow is held in the right hand, between the ends of the Thumb and the three first fingers, the Thumb being staid upon the hair at the the Nut, and the three fingers resting upon the wood ...

1677 - Johann Jacob Prinner's Musicalischer Schlissel. "...the violin bow is drawn with the right hand, but in different ways I have seen specially in Italy that most hold the bow just between the thumb and one finger, that is, only with two, on the wood, in the middle of the bow, where it’s more or less in balance, and bowed with that such that most true artists don’t approve ..."... but rather say that one should hold the bow nearer the frog, with the thumb on the hair and to lay the other fingers on the wood, so that one can tension the hair of the bow with the thumb, and with pressure one can give the bow power/strength”

Prinner is explicit here that the bow-on-the-stick hold is Italian. Looking through the other sources, we find a remarkable consistency; Germany, France and UK (before the Italian influence), thumb under - Italy, thumb on.

John Lenton, The Gentleman’s Diversion, or the Violin Explained (London, 1693): "hold it with your Thumb half under the Nutt, half under the Hair from the Nutt, and let it rest upon the middle of the first Joynt, place all your fingers upon the Bow, pretty close, (or for the better guiding of it) you may place the out-side of the first joynt of the little finger against the Wood, ..."

Roger North, reporting on Nicola Matteis in 1728: ”he taught the English to hold the bow by the wood onely and not to touch the hair which was no small reformation."

Georg Falck Idea boni cantoris (Nürnberg, 1688); ... [the student] must learn to grasp and hold the bow correctly, such that the right thumb slightly presses the hair next to the frog, so that the hair well drawn can bring a full stroke and sound from the strings, and then he must take the wood of the bow between the two front joints of the fingers ...“

Daniel Merck in Compendium Musicae Instrumentalis Chelicae, (Augsburg, 1695) is somewhat less useful; "How the bow is to be held, you should learn yourself"

Georg Muffat in the Preface to his Florilegium Secundum (Passau, 1698) gives us the clearest 17th-century summary of the situation; "The majority of German violinists and other players of upper string instruments hold the bow as the French [Lullists] do, pressing the hair with the thumb and resting the other fingers on the stick of the bow; ... The Italians, among others, differ in playing these upper instruments in that they never touch the hair; ..." [implicit, then, they - the Italians - have their thumb on the stick]

Michel Pignolet de Montéclair in 1711 writes: "The bow is held with the right hand, the four fingers placed on the wood, and the thumb under the frog which holds the hair."

Michel Corrette in 1738 is as explicit as Muffat: "I show here the two different ways of holding the bow. The Italians hold it at three quarters by placing four fingers on the wood at A. and the thumb underneath at B. The French hold it next to the frog, by placing the first, second and third fingers on the wood at C.D.E. the thumb underneath the hair at F. and the little finger next to the wood at G. These two methods of holding the bow are equally good, it depends on the master who teaches you.


Francesco Rognoni 1620; "The viole da brazzo, especially the violin, is an instrument in itself crude and harsh, if it is not tempered and softened by gentle/delicate [soave] bowing.”... "The passaggio must be made of equal notes and such that they can be heard note by note, not too fast or too slow, but following a middle road, drawing the bow well above the viola.”

Playford 1664; "you are first to draw an even stroke over each string severally, making each string yield a clear and distinct Sound.”

Bismantova 1677; "The whole art of playing the violin consists in knowing how to manage the bow well, and in making good bowing, in drawing a long bow ...'

Prinner 1677; "... with which to draw a steady long stroke ..."

Falck 1688; "the hair, well drawn, achieves a full stroke and sound from the strings ... The strokes should be according to the value and length of the notes long, full, and even on the strings, neither too near the bridge, nor too far from it.”

Lenton 1693; "let your Bow be as long as your Instrument, well mounted and stiff Hair'd, it will otherwise totter upon the String in drawing a long stroke;" and; "let the Bow move always within an inch of the Bridge directly forward and backward ..."

Merck 1695; "accustom himself to a nice long stroke, and above all should not rush the up bow”

Muffat 1698; " Moreover ... all the finest masters, regardless of their nationality, agree with each other that the longer, steadier, sweeter, and more even the bow-stroke is, the finer it is considered;..."

Francesco Rognoni: ”who lift [the bow] with such force that they make more noise with the bow than sound. What is more, they do not bow four eighth notes or sixteenths which are equal one to the next but they go on with the bow jumping on the viola so that it appears to devour the notes ...".

Where to Bow:

Bismantova 1677, "passaggi [diminutions], which should be played at the point of the bow, with a short stroke.”

Falck 1688, "the coloratura and quick little runs should be played at the point where the bow is light.“

North on Matteis: "he touched his devision with the very point;” (With a 'conventional' baroque bow (ca 1730's model 66 - 70 cm), the place to make the fast notes lively, sprightly and articulate seemed to me to be around the middle of the bow - the place where the bow might just bounce if you let it, but don't! The tip just seemed very far away and very 'flat' in effect. But with the little bows, the tip is firstly much 'closer', so to say, and the natural articulation of the short stick gives you the lively sprightly articulation without having to risk bouncing around out of control!)

’Up' and 'Down' bow in 17th century

Francesco Geminiani, in The Art of Playing on the Violin, 1751 asks in bowing exercise no. VIIIto take "... Care not to follow that wretched Rule of drawing the Bow down at the first Note of every Bar”.

Ricardo Rognoni: "Since on string instruments it is difficult to pull and push the bow in beginning to play, you must always pull the bow if you play the Viola da Gamba, and also the Viola da Braccio;”. "But short groppetti are made pushing and pulling as you wish”. "because on the Viola da Gamba the bow must be pushed on the eighths and quarters and on the viola da braccio it must be pulled on the eighths and quarters, this clarifies his confusion in the first phrase - at least insofar as confirming the two families bow in the opposite direction. But "pushed [or "pulled"] on the eighths and quarters" is far from clear. Which is disturbing particularly "because above all the bowing must always be done correctly." Once again, I presume that he means that for the violin family, the bow should be pulled (a down bow) on the odd eighths and quarters - so you bow "the right way round".

Francesco Rognoni: “Everyone should know the true way of playing upon the soprano, as far as bowing is concerned. When whole note rests are found, you must begin by pulling the bow downwards; when there are half notes or sospiri, by pushing it upwards. Similarly, when you find a passaggio beginning directly in sixteenths or thirty- seconds, pull downwards; if the passaggio is preceded by an eighth note you may push the bow upwards and this is the natural way“.

Mersenne, 1637: "But before starting the piece of music, one must consider that one should always pull the bow down on the first note of the bar, and push it up on the following note"

Zanetti (1645): gives very specific bowing instructions (by means of "T" and "P" in the music) - "bowing as it comes" principle.

Johann Andreas Herbst, 1658 "Notice that, at the beginning of the music: the bow should be drawn against the right hand. And when the whole rests are present, then one has to continue with the down-bow; but if half rests or quarter notes are found, then up bow follows." . The expression; "drawn against the right hand" [gegen der rechten Hand gezogen werden] (marked with "T" and "P" - again from Rognoni, Tirare and Pontare) start exclusively with a down bow, unless, exactly as said by Francesco Rognoni, they start with an upbeat, or an eighth followed by sixteenths.

John Playford, 1664: "when you see an even number of Quavers or Semiquavers, as 2,4,6,8 tied together, your Bow must move up or forwards, though it was up at the Note immediately before; but if you have an odd number, as 3,5 or 7 (which happens very often by reason of a prickt Note or an odd quaver rest) there your Bow must draw back at the first Note."

Bartolomeo Bismantova, 1677 - down bow on the barlines, a retake rather than two ups for two 16ths following an 8th, two ups on beats 2 and 3 in triple time. Playing a dotted note with a down bow.

Georg Falck, 1688: - start with a down bow; play an up bow after a rest, or an uneven number of notes; adjust either by slurring two 16ths after an 8th, or retaking a down on the first 16th; play all dotted notes with a down bow. In triple time he suggests it doesn't much matter how you bow (down-up-up, down-up-down with a new down on each bar, or as it comes); "as long as the music is not deformed".

John Lenton, 1693: Treatise, The Gentleman's Diversion. " ... if you have an odd Note before the first Barr it must be struck with an up Bow, and you must be sure always to order your Bow of a length proportional to the Note you are going to hit ..." . First, you have a clear statement of the "Rule of the Up Bow" - and what good advice about bow distribution!

Daniel Merck's Compendium Musicae Instrumentalis Chelicae, 1695: He emphasises the importance of a down bow on the first beat - and he's concerned (like the Rognoni's) about the importance of getting the bowing right - If one has not learnt the up and down strokes correctly, this leads to an unordered and absurd measure, from which really big mistakes arise.

Georg Muffat (1653 - 1704) - Florilegium Secundum (Passau, 1698)

Georg Muffat was one of the most significant performers, composers and writers of the late 17th century. He studied with Lully, he knew Corelli, his ensemble pieces for strings embrace French and Italian styles, and he was particularly concerned with educating German musicians how to play in the appropriate style. He wrote two collections of dance suites in the French style for ensemble - Florilegium Primum (1695) and Florilegium Secundum (1698). In the Preface to each he gives a few guidelines to how they should be performed. And in particular, the Preface to Florilegium Secundum is an extremely detailed and precise information covering a wide range of topics - fingering, bowing, tempo, Lullian practice and ornamentation, which he beautifully presents with this little couplet:

"Fingering, Bowing, Tempo, Style and Charm Make the violin lively and lovely-sounding".

The Use of the Bow

The majority of German violinists and other players of upper string instruments hold the bow as the French [Lullists] do, pressing the hair with the thumb and resting the other fingers on the stick of the bow; the French hold it the same way when playing the bass. The Italians, among others, differ in playing these upper instruments in that they never touch the hair; and gambists and other bass-players differ in that they place their fingers between the hair and wood of the bow.

However, it is well known that the Lullists, whom the French, the English, those from the Low Countries, and many others follow, all observe an identical way of bowing, even if a thousand of them play together. They all observe the same way of playing the principal notes in the measure: above all, those that begin the measure, those that define the cadence, and those that most clearly emphasise the dance rhythm. This uniformity, so necessary for marking the dance-movement, is not found among our players in Germany, regardless of their excellence. Many gentlemen, on their return from foreign parts, have remarked that such a great difference in sound was often astonishing and that the dances were considerably altered. To obviate this disorder and danger of confusion, I have thought to please the curious by remembering here certain of the principal rules of the French method of bowing. The mark n placed over a note signifies down-bow, and the mark v up-bow.

  1. The first note in each bar, where there is no rest or breath, should be played down- bow, regardless of its value. This is the principal and almost indispensable rule of the Lullists, on which almost the entire secret of bowing depends, and which differentiates them from the others. All subsequent rules depend on this rule. In order to know how the other notes fall into place and are to be played, one must attend to the following rules.
  2. In common time, which the theorists call "tempus imperfectum", the measure is divided equally in half. Notes on odd parts of the measure (1, 3, 5, etc.) are played down-bow, and those on even parts (2, 4, 6, etc.) should be played up-bow.

The rule applies also in triple meter, or any meter where the beats are diminished equally in half.

This way of counting equal divisions of beats is similarly observed if rests of the same value appear instead of notes. All the finest masters agree readily with the French on this second rule.


Quotes about swells and messa di voce

Caccini Preface to Le Nuove Musiche (1601): “Esclamazione” and “messa di voce” are the first ornaments described in Caccini's preface. He recommends using the esclamazione (forte attack, decrescendo, and blossoming, i.e. crescendo) whenever there is a half note or dotted quarter note which descends and preferably when the following note is short. They (esclamazione) are not to be used on whole notes, where there is more room for a crescendo- and-decrescendo (messa di voce – or a vocal swell).

Francesco Rognoni (1620): Rognoni directs singers “to begin long notes with the voice soft and low, raising it bit by bit to the maximum in words of grief because the true effect consists in knowing how to diminish the voice and to raise it where there is need.”

Christopher Simpson (17th c. English viola da gambist): Simpson speaks of swelling or growing louder toward the middle and ending in “one and the same note.”

Roger North (c.1695) A long note should be “filled and softened ‘insensatim’ (imperceptibly), so as to be like also a gust of wind, which begins with a soft air, and fills by degrees to a strength as makes all bend, and then softens away again into a temper (moderation), and so vanish.” Roger North wrote of Nicola Matteis that he “was an excellent musician, and performed wonderfully upon the violin. His manner was singular, but in one respect excelled all that had bin known before in England, which was the arcata.” (meaning long notes, probably with swells and possibly vibrato).

Corette 1738: “In Sarabandes, Adagios, Largos and other pieces ‘de gout’, the long notes receive a crescendo at the end and the final long note at the cadence a messa di voce.”

Veracini: Veracini Opus 2 uses the following signs with the following explanation:

Toinon (French composer) 1699 Enfler le sons: “To swell the sound is to increase it little by little, and then to diminish it proportionately, which is ordinarily done on long notes.”

Geminiani Rules for Playing in a True Taste: In the first paragraph of the preface, Geminiani explains why he used excessive markings in the music of the publication, and lists the “swell” mark as the very first one.

Geminiani’s The Art of Playing on the Violin (1751) “One of the principal Beauties of the Violin is the swelling or increasing and softening, the Sound; which is done by pressing the Bow upon the Strings with the Fore-finger more or less. In playing all long Notes the Sound should be begun soft, and gradually swelled till the Middle, and from thence gradually softened till the End.”

L’Abbé le fils, Principes du Violon, 1761: L'Abbé le fils writes that the bow serves to give “expression to the tones, to spin them out, to swell them and to diminish them” (“L’expression aux sons, à les filer, à les enfler, et à les diminuer”). He adds: “To spin out a tone means to sustain it for a certain duration with the same degree of force”... and elsewhere....” One can call the bow the soul of the instrument it touches.”

Robert Bremner, a highly regarded English publisher, in Some Thoughts on the Performance of Concert-Music, (1777): “The practice of the swell, as there instructed (Tartini’s letter) is of the utmost consequence to those who wish to send a melodious Adagio, or any air home to the heart; but such slow movements as are composed more for the effects of harmony than melody, like those in the trios of Corelli, and many modern compositions, claim, in most instances, a steady equal pressure of bow. A daily practice of this manner of bowing is of equal importance with that of the swell, if not more so, to those who wish to be useful in concert; as it accustoms the student to have at all times length of bow to spare, of which every good performer makes a point. There two, namely the swell, and sostenuto, or sustained bow, may be said to be the roots from whence all the other powers of the bow spring.”

Quantz 1752 describes how to do a messa di voce in the chapter Of the Manner of playing the Adagio: “...you must first tip [the note] gently with the tongue, scarcely exhaling; then you begin pianissimo, allow the strength of the tone to swell to the middle of the note, and from there diminish it to the end of the note in the same fashion, making a vibrato with the finger on the nearest open hole. The singing notes that follow a long note may be played a little more prominently. Yet each note, whether it is a crotchet, quaver, or semiquaver, must have its own Piano & Forte, to the extent that the time permits. If, however, several long notes found in succession where, in strengthening the tone, the time does not permit you to swell each note individually, you can still swell and diminish the tone during notes like this so that some become louder and others softer. And this change in the strength in tone must be made from the chest, that is, through exhalation. You must also be careful to sustain the melody constantly, and to take breath at the proper time...[ie legato]. All the notes in the Adagio must be caressed and flattered, so to speak; they must never be tipped harshly, unless perhaps the composer wishes several notes briefly articulated to revive the listener who may have dozed off.”! & from Of the Manner of Playing the Allegro “ Particular care must be taken not to hurry slow and singing notes interspersed in the passage-work”. [ie longer notes = slower speed, therefore some shape is implied

Leopold Mozart 1756 from Chapter V- How, by adroit control of the Bow, one should seek to produce a good tone on a Violin and bring it forth in the right manner.

2. Therefore string the violin more thickly; take pains always to play with earnestness and manliness; and finally strive, even when the tone is strong, to make it pure; to which end the right division of the bow and the changing from soft to loud contribute the most.

3. Every tone, even the strongest attack, has a small, even if barely audible, softness at the beginning of the stroke; for it would otherwise be no tone but only an unpleasant and unintelligible noise. This same softness must be heard at the end of each stroke. Hence one must know how to divide the bow into weakness and strength, and therefore how by means of pressure and relaxation, to produce the notes beautifully and touchingly.

10. By diligent practise of the division of the stroke, one becomes dexterous in the control of the bow, and through control one achieves purity and tone.

12. By means of these and similar useful precautions, great pains must be taken to obtain evenness of tone; which evenness must be maintained at all times in the changes between strong (forte) and weak (piano). For piano does not consist in simply letting the bow leave the violin and merely slipping it loosely about the strings, which results in a totally different and whistling tone, but the weak must have the same tone quality as the strong, save that it should not sound so loudly to the ear. We must therefore so lead the bow from strong to weak that at all times a good, even, singing and, so to speak, round and fat tone can be heard, which must be accomplished by a certain control of the right hand, but in particular by a certain alternate adroit stiffening and relaxing of the wrist. This can be better shown than described.

13. Everyone who understands even a little of the art of singing, knows that an even tone is indispensable. For to whom would it give pleasure if a singer when singing low or high, sang now from the throat, now from the nose or though the teeth and so on, or even at times sang falsetto? Similarly an even quality of tone must be maintained on the violin in strength and weakness not on one string only, but on all strings, and with such control that one string does not overpower the other.

14. Not a little is added to evenness and purity of tone if you know how to fit much into one stroke. Yea, it goes against nature if you are constantly interrupting and changing. A singer who during every phrase stopped, took a breath, and specially stressed first this note, then that note, would unfailingly move everyone to laughter. The human voice glides quite easily from one note to another; and a sensible singer will never make a break unless some special kind of expression or the divisions or rests of the phrase demand one. And who is not aware that singing is at all times the aim of every instrumentalist; because one must always approximate to nature as nearly as possible. You must therefore take pains where the Cantilena of the piece demands no break, not only to leave the bow on the violin when changing the stroke, in order to connect one string with another, but also to play as many notes in one stroke, and in such fashion that the notes which belong together shall run into each other, and are only differentiated in some degree by means of forte and piano.

Speaking Style:

Using a song with text to practise

Fairest Isle

Score Examples

  1. Loure (pour les Phrigiens)
  2. Marais Alcyone Chaconne
  3. Corelli Christmas Concerto ( Example of how to bow out )
  4. Lully Overture
  5. Fireworks: Bouree & Minuet 2
  6. Élisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre: Céphale Suite Gigue

Video Examples

Bow Hold Grip

Embody the passions

How to Embody the passions to enhance the music, creating nuance, excitement, and create compelling performances, connecting with the music, yourself, your colleagues and your audiences.

Affect: I define affect as the interactive movement, physical commitment, and emotional vulnerability that is present in the act of performance. (K. Richards)

Joy and Sadness Exercise

Graphic for the embodiment of joy created by Kailey Richards in order to illustrate the fluidity from one aspect of physicality to another. Since they all intertwine, this process can also be approached from any part of the body.

Exercise: The first part of this exercise can be done by anyone as it is feeling the affect in the body ratherthan playing the violin specifically. Keeping the violin and bow set aside for the start of this exercise. Move your body and transition the feeling from the Progressive Muscle Awareness exercise from awareness to adding the feel of joy in each joint in the body. Joy, as a very active affect, begins with all the joints high strung and braced boldly (bend your knees and brace as if you were to dribble or catch a basketball). This stature is combined with an erect upper body (breast inflated and neck tall), but it is important to note that this tall stature is without stiffness since it is the “warm and conscious expansion of the heart” as Hill put it. It is important to remember that movement is the opposite of tension, so you can move your ribcage and hips side to side to assure there is no stiffness. Finally, the forehead is raised (massage the forehead to make certain there is no tension held there) and there is a smile in the eyes. Go through each joint starting from the toes and feel the tingle of energy, warmth, and bounce that you imagine fits with joy. From this position, move your arms and feel the energy through to their fingertips (this is similar to Stanley’s approach of bow gestures without the bow). You can close your eyes and become aware of the responsiveness of the body as you move.

Now, violinists, shift your attention to become aware of how this level of energy easily results in light and quick movements (some might become more aware of their hands warming up as the blood-flow increases). Pick up your violins and feel how this energy and quick responsiveness in your fingers creates a faster bow speed and lightness to the strokes. The tall and open stature (especially of the breast) combined with a lack of stiffness results in a warmer and more resonant tone as tension is removed from the bow-arm. Finally, with all the joints braced, the bow automatically begins to bounce and easily comes off the string. The whole range of bow-strokes that you make within this muscular state will be coloured towards a joyful affect.

Excerpt from the first violin part of Handel’s “The Trumpet Shall Sound” (George Frideric Handel,
Graphic for the embodiment of anger created by Kailey Richards.

For anger, I prefer to start with the breath as it moves more rapidly and forcefully intensifying blood flow (summing up the blood, as Hill put it). Take a few forceful breathes and you’re your blood flow increase (boil). Again, go through each joint starting from the toes and feel each joint braced with the held power of violent motion waiting to be released. Furrow the brow and feel the teeth setting increasing tension through the jaw line. From this position, move your arms and feel the energy through to their fingertips. Close your eyes, if you prefer, and become aware of the responsiveness of the body as you move. Now, violinists, pick up the violin and bow and as you play release the held tension aggressively into the string. Don’t be afraid to make ‘ugly’ sounds as you experiment. Building up a repertoire of affects requires us to be non-judgemental and step outside the box of the tone colours we are accustomed to producing.

Excerpt from the full score of Handel’s “With Rage I Shall Burst”

To embody jealousy, there is no more wavering in the full body between languid and braced. All the joints of the body are high-strung and braced in hardened anger. The face then shifts from anger to moments of softened sorrow. Overall, to display jealousy there must be a mixture of anger and sorrow, but never completely settling into one because they taint each other preventing them from becoming the primary affect we discussed earlier. Jealousy also lends itself to the exploration of indignation (subtler form of anger), bitterness (biting articulation with no commitment of anger), and doubt (elements of the uneasiness of fear). It would be important here to mark out in the score which moments were sorrowful, which were angry, and which were moments of transition.

Excerpt from the first violin part of Handel’s “Jealousy! Infernal Pest”